Promulgated anew in response to technological and epistemological change, yet bearing the vestiges of prior media, management, and classifications, digital archival records such as TAGOKOR offer a rich point of reflection upon the interplay of historical event, administrative custodianship, media preservation, public accessibility, and continuing reinterpretation.
Sam Ayala of Niles, Calif. L, 7th RCT, U. Ayala was wounded while engaged in a bitter grenade battle with deeply entrenched Chinese Communism. Photo from U. Army Signal Corps archive. Census, dramatically shortening the time it took to compile the information and receiving widespread media attention in the process.
The U. Army first used punch cards in World War I in enlistee testing, and punch cards were in wide use by the government and military throughout the s and s. These same casualty punch cards were used in compiling overall battle casualty reports, and in preparing a comprehensive round-up of World War II Honor Dead and Missing by state and county of residence. By the mids, however, the Army was moving away from punch card machinery.
This first moment of preservation reformatting thus offers an early glimpse of how administrative decision-making, along with expectations of research use, shape the arrangement of, and access to, the historical record. Memorandum from Colonel J. Gladwin, an electronic records archivist at NARA. Servile to the pull of technological change, the whims of human signification, and the longevity of printed errata, early electronic data files and digital archival records like TAGOKOR exist at a distinct intersection of documentation, mechanism, and technological reconstitution that discommode ideas of trustworthiness, decipherability, and explication.
Zegarelli, Utica, N. But catastrophes can also have tangential, unforeseen influences on how archival materials come be appraised, acquired, or preserved. Army personnel records from to influenced its decision to seek out and acquire other records and data files documenting this information. Incidentally, the Census records, discussed previously as one of the first notable uses of punch cards and machine data processing by Hollerith, were themselves damaged in a fire at the U.
Census building in It is a 7 track tape, BPI, which was written on November 3, and received from the department of the Army on January 29, NPRC request for new file.
Also the current format of the listings by state, county within state, and alphabetically based on the surname within the county, is no longer the most desirable format. Similar changes happened within the agency itself, with the departmental responsibility for electronic records being established as a branch, upgraded to a division, downgraded back to a branch, upgraded back to a division, and upgraded again to a center—all between and The pace of technological change had its impact as well, with NARA commissioning many preservation systems over the years, being forced to reassess prior appraisal guidelines due to hardware and software dependencies, making ongoing preservation format decisions as storage grew and new media types emerged, and steadily increasing the types of formats it accepted and the volume of born-digital materials it acquired.
The encoding system reveals its own punch card origins, with its non-continuous alphabet representation. The character encoding method is seldom, if ever, used today, long supplanted by more logical character encodings such as ASCII and Unicode. Changes in technology also came to bear on the systems responsible for its ongoing custodianship and preservation.
This preceded a more thorough analysis by the NIH computer center that was able to extract and copy the data labels and records, and provide some information on value frequencies and cross-tabulations. The file was also copied to an archival master track, bpi, magnetic tape cartridge, which NARA had moved to as its preservation format two years prior. This more thorough analysis includes an examination of data elements, distinct values, null fields and records, and code frequency counts.
Matched with known codebooks and the SRs required to interpret the data, AERIC offered a level of error identification and data analysis similar to what one would encounter using a spreadsheet or pivot table today. Driven by the exponential increase in electronic data files being transferred from agencies to NARA NARA accessioned electronic data files in ; four years later, in , they accessioned 8, , APS allowed greater custodial control of the electronic records once they were in the archive.
These inconsistencies reflect the use of the records for administrative purpose and not necessarily for statistical analysis. The history of ERA merits its own essay, but broadly stated, the system integrates and extends some of the functions of APS and AERIC while also building an integrated environment for transfer, accessioning, preservation, and online accessibility to the electronic records in the system.
Louis F. Walz left , a member of Co. Raymond M. Szukla, a member of Co. Walz is recovering from a head wound, and Pfc. Szukla suffered a wound in the right leg while engaged in action against the Communist-led North Korean forces. Desirable Output instructions.
Researchers could use a number of print copies, some partially decoded, as well as supplementary research materials. Weiher, is reversed. The Center for Electronic Records will provide you with a copy … with all variables included. Hess of the 2nd Infantry Division Association. Hess had appealed his FOIA denial on the grounds that the Department of Defense had already released casualty information as press releases at the time of the conflict, and those records were themselves made available to researchers by the National Archives as paper archival copies in other collections.
We sincerely hope that during its five year existence it has been of some help to you, and hopefully we can bring it back to you at some future date.
Whitey Reese Korean Casualty page. Borinqueneers Casualty page. Army casualties , or they mix and match TAGOKOR data with other files to highlight a specific unit, to verify service records and awards, or to substantiate years of service or dates of casualty.
TAGOKOR has informed the casualty listings offline as well, providing troop listings for monuments and memorials, including those seeking to recognize veterans according to hometown or geographic area. Public-use versions of the file have been arranged in ways that best enabled ease of search, and full copies of the file have been made available; but, access to individual records within the dataset required users either to request a full copy on media and decode it themselves or visit NARA. That changed in , with the launch of the Access to Archive Database system AAD , which allows users to search, query, and download portions of born-digital archival data files.
The AAD currently provides access to almost electronic files and databases containing around 85 million individual records.
List of United States Marine Corps acronyms and expressions - Wikipedia
Figure These might employ a number of different new encoding and accessibility techniques. Contemporary data editing applications allow for user-driven deciphering, code frequency analysis, error identification and correction, and similar parsing and unraveling of the records. The availability of the full dataset also allows for the creation of data visualizations of the information and other novel methods by which to query and interpret the full extent of the , records in the file.
They only got me in the kneecap. There was somebody on top of me, and I think the guards were in a hurry to leave by then. It is also a representation, incomplete yet significant, of many tragic stories of human experience—stories simultaneously lost to time, evoked by their incomplete representation in documents, photographs, or electronic records, and also continually regenerated according to the fluctuations of law, culture, and technology.
Concomitant with this media evolution has been the variety of ways that TAGOKOR has been made accessible to, and interpreted by, researchers and the public, and how it has accrued the lineaments—technological and managerial—of its ongoing administration.imap.manualcoursemarket.com/rer-prezzo-idrossiclorochina.php
Military Abbreviations used in Service Files
TAGOKOR offers such a rich point of reflection on the nature of digital records because its origin as a statistical file seems to exist at such great conceptual distance not just from the tragedies, the literal mortalities, it tabulates, but because it exists as both calculation and abstraction. Its complicated administrative history, FOIA status, and preservation actions provide a distinct counterpoint to the brutal weight of the multitudinous human epochs it carries through time.
At that moment when technical capability, technological infrastructure, and established best practices—as far as bit-level preservation—were understood and effectively administered by archivists, access issues began to morph. The changing legal context due to FOIA legislation and new access technologies allowed average users to provide their own methods of access to records and contextualize and describe them in personal, distinctive ways. As TAGOKOR the electronic record became better stabilized and validated, its representation became more unanchored, more refracted and restructured by users outside the archive and away from the paper printouts, key files, static interfaces, and legacy representations.
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Character—who you are—contributes significantly to how you act. Character is made up of two interacting parts: values and attributes. Army Values Your attitudes about the worth of people, concepts, and other things describe your values. Everything begins there. Your subordinates enter the Army with their own values, developed in childhood and nurtured through experience. But when soldiers and DA civilians take the oath, they enter an institution guided by Army values. These are more than a system of rules. These values tell you what you need to be, every day, in every action you take.
Army values form the very identity of the Army, the solid rock upon which everything else stands, especially in combat. They are the glue that binds together the members of a noble profession. As a result, the whole is much greater than the sum of its parts.
Army values are nonnegotiable: they apply to everyone and in every situation throughout the Army. Army values remind us and tell the rest of the world—the civilian government we serve, the nation we protect, even our enemies—who we are and what we stand for. The trust soldiers and DA civilians have for each other and the trust the American people have in us depends on how well we live up to Army values.
They are the fundamental building blocks that enable us to discern right from wrong in any situation.